Flora

Crnika (Quercus ilex L.)

Holm oak (Quercus ilex L.)

is a tall tree that can also grow as a bush. The leaves are dark green and shiny on the upper surface and white or yellowish with fine hairs on the underside. Flowers have separate sexes and are plain. Pollinated by wind. The fruit is an acorn that is edible for humans (boiled and baked).


Fafarinka (Celtis australis)

European hackberry (Celtis australis)

is a sub-Mediterranean plant found in pubescent oak forests and thickets. This tree grows slowly, but can live from 400 to 1000 years. It thrives on limestone, loose and sandy soils. It can survive at altitudes of up to 900 metres. The tree is well rooted, thanks to a branching and well developed root system. The hackberry is a deciduous tree that can grow up to 20 m in height. The trunk is encased in a thick, ash-grey bark. The broad crown is made up of branches with two rows of dark green leaves having a rough upper surface, and light greyish-green underside with soft hairs. The leaf blade is on a hairy stem that is 0.5 to 2 cm long. The fruits are sweet, edible, round and black with pits.


Alepski bor (Pinus halepensis Mill.)

Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.)

is a tall tree, growing up to 20 metres. It has a bent trunk and branches and the crown is a rounded pyramidal shape and is irregularly developed in older trees. The root system is strong and branching, though it is often not strong enough to hold up in strong winds. Two needles are in a bunch. The flowers are of separate sexes and are pollinated by wind, the cones are egg-shaped and hang on bent stems that are 6 to 7 cm long and about 4 cm wide. The seeds are dark brown and have wings. This tree is extremely important in the process of pedogenesis (soil development) in karst areas.


Obični čempres (Cupressus sempervirens)

Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens)

can grow to be 20 to 30 metres tall. There are two varieties: the pyramidal cypress, with a pyramidal shaped crown, with branches pointing upwards, virtually closing in on the trunk; and the horizontal cypress, with a rounded crown and branches growing horizontally from the trunk. The bark of the Mediterranean cypress is grey, smooth and thin when the tree is young, and later in life turns a greyish-brown colour and becomes vertically furrowed. The needles are dark green and are made up of small, flat scales that are very small and rounded at the top, with a long gland found on the underside of the flat scales. The cones are round and 2 to 3 cm long.


Divlja maslina (Olea europaea L.)

Olive (Olea europaea L.)

is an evergreen, low, irregularly branching tree. The leaves are leathery, oval and “olive-green” in colour, with a silvery underside, while the flowers are white and in bunches. Grows on karst soil, demands a climate without large temperature fluctuations, can tolerate drought well, but not temperatures below freezing. Cultivated in the warmer parts of the Mediterranean, along the sea coast, to maximum altitudes of 400 metres. The olive blooms in May and June, and the fruit matures between October and February, depending on the variety and climatic conditions. It is known for its longevity. Its oil is used in the diet, as a medicine and in cosmetics. The wood has been used for lantern fuel and as money. Olive wood is of a high quality and is very expensive. Heracles carried a club made of olive wood, while Odyssey blinded the Cyclops with a stake made of olive wood.


Ilirska perunika (Iris illyrica)

Illyrian Iris (Iris illyrica)

an Illyrian/Adriatic endemic and strictly protected species; grows on the rocky grasslands and sparse thickets.


Pčelina kokica (Ophrys apifera)

Bee Orchid (Ophrys apifera)

endangered (EN) and strictly protected species of the Croatian flora; grows on rocky grasslandsand in sparse thickets.


Močvarni kaćun (Orchis laxiflora ssp. palustris)

Marsh Orchid (Orchis laxiflora ssp. palustris)

strictly protected species of the Croatian flora; grows in wetland habitats.


Močvarna perunika (Iris pseudacorus)

Pale Yellow Iris (Iris pseudacorus)

strictly protected species of the Croatian flora that grows in wetland habitats.


Dalmatinska žutilovka (Genista sylvestris ssp. dalmatica)

Dalmatian broom (Genista sylvestris ssp. dalmatica)

Illyrian/Adriatic endemics and strictly protected species; grows on rocky grasslands and in sparse thickets.

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